This can be as simple as a bad outlet (including blown fuse or tripped circuit breaker due to some other fault), switched outlet and the switch is off, or bad cordset. * Plug a lamp into the outlet to make sure it is live. If the lamp works, then the problem is the TV. It not, the outlet is defective or the fuse is blown or the circuit breaker is tripped. There is another very simple explanation that is sometimes overlooked: This is a switched outlet. You always wondered what that wall switch was for that didn't seem to do anything and you flipped randomly :-). Well, now you know! * Try wiggling the TV's cord both at the outlet (also push the wire toward the plug) and TV (also push the cord toward the TV) with the set on and/or while pressing the power-on button. If you can get a response, even momentarily, the cord likely has broken wires internally. Beyond these basic causes, troubleshooting will be needed inside the set to determine what is defective. Also see the section: "Intermittently dead set - bad cordset".
There are two problems which are common with the line cord on appliances. Don't overlook these really simple things when troubleshooting your vacuum cleaner - or fancy electronic equipment! If wiggling the cord has an effect, then the following are likely causes: * Repeated flexing results in the internal conductors breaking either at the plug or appliance end. If flexing the cord/squeezing/pulling results in the device going on and off, it is bad. If the problem is at the plug end, cut off the old plug a couple of inches beyond the problem area and replace just he plug. If the problem is at the appliance end, an entire new cordset is best though you can probably cut out the bad section and solder what remains directly to the mainboard. In either case, observe the polarity of the cord wires - they will be marked in some way with a ridge or stripe. It is important that the new plug be of the same type (polarized usually) and that the cord is wired the same way. * The prongs do not fit snugly into older worn outlets. This can usually be remedied by using a pointed tool like an awl or utility knife to spread apart the pair of leaves often used to form each prong of the plug. If the prongs are made of solid metal, it may be possible to spread them apart - widen the space between them. Alternatively, get a 3 to 2 prong adapter just to use as an intermediate connector. Spread the leaves of its prongs. However, a new outlet is best. * Bad connections on the mainboard. As you flex the cord, it is also stressing the attachment to the mainboard and affecting some marginal solder joints. It is important to deal with these symptoms as soon as possible as erratic power cycling can lead to much more serious and expensive problems down the road.
If the on/off (or other button) on the set itself behaves erratically but the remote control works fine, then it could be a dirty button or cable or other connections to the switch PCB, particularly if the buttons on the set itself are rarely used. There could possibly be a bad pullup resistor or something of that sort - but is it worth the effort to locate? Why not just continue to use the remote? There is no reason to suspect that it will develop similar symptoms. However, there is some risk that if the button is dirty, you may find the TV coming on at random times in the middle of the night (of course!). I think I have an older Sylvania that does that sort of thing - don't really know as I never use the power button on the set! If power is controlled by a hard switch - a pull or click knob, or mechanical push-push switch and this has become erratic due to worn contacts, replacements are available but often only directly from the original manufacturer to physically fit and (where applicable) have the volume or other controls built in. As an alternative, consider mounting a small toggle switch on the side of the cabinet to substitute for the broken switch. This will almost certainly be easier and cheaper - and quite possibly, more reliable.
If the fuse really blows absolutely instantly with no indication that the circuits are functioning (no high pitched horizontal deflection whine (if your dog hides under the couch whenever the TV is turned on, deflection is probably working)), then this points to a short somewhere quite near the AC power input. The most common places would be: * Degauss Posistor - very likely. * Horizontal output transistor. * Power supply regulator if there is one. * Power supply chopper (switchmode) transistor if there is one. * Diode(s) in main bridge * Main filter capacitor(s). You should be able to eliminate these one by one. Unplug the degauss coil as this will show up as a low resistance. First, measure across the input to the main power rectifiers - it should not be that low. A reading of only a few ohms may mean a shorted rectifier or two or a shorted Posistor. * Test the rectifiers individually or remove and retest the resistance. * Some sets use a Posistor for degauss control. This is a little cubical (about 1/2" x 3/4" x 1") component with 3 legs. It includes a line operated heater disk (which often shorts out) and a PTC thermister to control current to the degauss coil. Remove the posistor and try power. If the monitor now works, obtain a replacement but in the meantime you just won't have the automatic degauss. If these test good, use an ohmmeter with the set unplugged to measure the horizontal output transistor. Even better to remove it and measure it. * C-E should be high in at least one direction. * B-E may be high or around 50 ohms but should not be near 0. If any readings are under 5 ohms, the transistor is bad. The parts sources listed at the end of this document will have suitable replacements. If the HOT tests bad, try powering the set first with your light bulb and if it just flashes once when the capacitor is charging, then put a fuse in and try it. The fuse should not blow with the transistor removed. Of course, not much else will work either. If it tests good, power the set without the transistor and see what happens. If the fuse does not blow, then with the good transistor (assuming it is not failing under load), it would mean that there is some problem with the driving circuits possibly or with the feedback from the voltages derived from the horizontal not regulating properly. Look inside the TV and see if you can locate any other large power transistors in metal (TO3) cans or plastic (TOP3) cases. There may be a separate transistor that does the low voltage regulation or a separate regulator IC. Some TVs have a switchmode power supply that runs off a different transistor than the HOT. There is a chance that one of these may be bad. If it is a simple transistor, the same ohmmeter check should be performed. If none of this proves fruitful, it may be time to try to locate a schematic. A blown fuse is a very common type of fault due to poor design very often triggered by power surges due to outages or lightning storms. However, the most likely parts to short are easily tested, usually in-circuit, with an ohmmeter and then easily removed to confirm. If you find the problem and repair it yourself, the cost is likely to be under $25.
This is a problem which is not going to be easy to identify. One possibility is a drive problem. The messed up sync resulting from swtiching channels, or changing input connections might be resulting in an excessively long scan time for just one scan line. However, this may be enough to cause a current spike in the horizontal output circuit or an excessive voltage spike on the collector of the horizontal output transistor. Normally, the HOT current ramps up during scan. During flyback, the current is turned off. This current is normally limited and the voltage spike on the collector of the HOT is also limited by the snubber capacitors to a safe value. If scan time is too long, current continues to increase. At some point, the flyback core saturates and current goes way up. In addition, the voltage spike will be much higher - perhaps destructively so. Troubleshooting these sorts of problems is going to be tough. However, a likely area to investigate would be: * Drive circuitry for the HOT including the coupling components. * The chip that generates takes the sync input and generates the horizontal drive signal. * A bad low voltage regulator might permit the B+ to rise to excessive levels during black scenes (i.e., video mute during channel changing).
Power surges or nearby lightning strikes can destroy electronic equipment. However, most of the time, damage is minimal or at least easily repaired. With a direct hit, you may not recognize what is left of it! Ideally, electronic equipment should be unplugged (both AC line and phone line!) during electrical storms if possible. Modern TVs, VCRs, microwave ovens, and even stereo equipment is particularly susceptible to lightning and surge damage because some parts of the circuitry are always alive and therefore have a connection to the AC line. Telephones, modems, and faxes are directly connected to the phone lines. Better designs include filtering and surge suppression components built in. With a near-miss, the only thing that may happen is for the internal fuse to blow or for the microcontroller to go bonkers and just require power cycling. There is no possible protection against a direct strike. However, devices with power switches that totally break the line connection are more robust since it takes much more voltage to jump the gap in the switch than to fry electronic parts. Monitors and TVs may also have their CRTs magnetized due to the electromagnetic fields associated with a lightning strike - similar but on a smaller scale to the EMP of a nuclear detonation. Was the TV operating or on standby at the time? If it was switched off using an actual power switch (not a logic pushbutton or the remote control), then either a component in front of the switch has blown, the surge was enough to jump the gap between the switch contacts, or it was just a coincidence (yeh, right). If the TV was operating or on standby or has no actual power switch, then a number of parts could be fried. TVs usually have their own internal surge protection devices like MOVs (Metal Oxide Varistors) after the fuse. So it is possible that all that is wrong is that the line fuse has blown. Remove the cover (unplug it first!) and start at the line cord. If you find a blown fuse, remove it and measure across the in-board side of fuse holder and the other (should be the neutral) side of the line. The ohmmeter reading should be fairly high - well certainly not less than 100 ohms - in at least one direction. You may need to unplug the degaussing coil to get a reasonable reading as its resistance may be 25 or 30 ohms. If the reading is really low, there are other problems. If the resistance checks out, replace the fuse and try powering the TV. There will be 3 possibilities: 1. It will work fine, problem solved. 2. It will immediately blow the fuse. This means there is at least one component shorted - possibilities include an MOV, line rectifiers, main filter cap, regulator transistor, horizontal output transistor, etc. You will need to check with your ohmmeter for shorted semiconductors. Remove any that are suspect and see of the fuse now survives (use the series light bulb to cut your losses - see the section: "The series light bulb trick". 3. It will not work properly or appear dead. This could mean there are open fusable resistors other defective parts in the power supply or elsewhere. In this case further testing will be required and at some point you may need the schematic. If the reading is very low or the fuse blows again, see the section: "TV blows fuse".
The click probably means that the power relay is working, though there could be bad contacts. Since the fuse doesn't blow now (you did replace it with one of the same ratings, right?), you need to check for: * Other blown fuses - occasionally there are more than one in a TV. Replace with one of exactly the same ratings. * Open fusable resistors. These sometimes blow at the same time or in place of the fuses. They are usually low values like 2 ohms and are in big rectangular ceramic power resistor cases or smaller blue or gray colored cylindrical power resistors. They are supposed to protect expensive parts like the HOT but often blow at the same time. If any of these are bad, they will need to be replaced with flameproof resistors of the same ratings (though you can substitute an ordinary resistor for testing purposes). Before applying power, check: Rectifier diodes, horizontal output transistor, regulator pass or chopper transistor (if present), and main filter capacitor for shorts. An initial test with an ohmmeter can be done while in-circuit. The resistance across each diode and the collector to emitter of the transistors should be relatively high - a few hundred ohms at lest - in at least one direction (in-circuit). If there is a question, unsolder one side of each diode and check - should be in the Megohms or higher in one direction. Removed from the circuit, the collector-emitter resistance should be very high in one direction at least. Depending on the type, the base-emitter resistance may be high in one direction or around 50 ohms. If any reading on a semiconductor device is under 10 ohms - then the device most likely bad. Assuming that you do not have a schematic, you should be able to locate the rectifiers near where the line cord is connected and trace the circuit. The transistors will be either in a TO3 large metal can or a TOP3 plastic package - on heat sinks. The filter capacitor should eventually measure high in one direction (it will take a while to charge from your ohmmeter). It could still be failing at full voltage, however. If you find one bad part, still check everything else as more than one part may fail and just replacing one may cause it to fail again. Assuming everything here checks out, clip a voltmeter set on its 500 V scale or higher across the horizontal output transistor and turn the power on. Warning - never measure this point if the horizontal deflection is operating. it is ok now since the set is dead. If the voltage here is 100-150, then there is a problem in the drive to the horizontal output circuit. If it is low or 0, then there are still problems in the power supply or with the winding on the flyback transformer. Other possible problems: bad hybrid voltage regulator, bad startup circuit, bad standby power supply (dried up filter capacitor, etc.) bad relay contacts as mentioned above. However, these probably would not have blown the fuse in the first place so are less likely.
A variety of power supply or startup problems can result in this or similar behavior. Possibilities include: * Lack of startup horizontal drive - see the section: "Startup problems - nothing happens, click, or tick-tick-tick sound". The main regulator is cycling on overvoltage due to lack of load. * Excessive load or faulty power supply cycling on its overcurrent protection circuit. * High voltage shutdown, or some other system detecting an out of regulation condition. However, in this case, there should be some indication that the deflection and HV is attempting to come up - momentary whine, static on the screen, etc. * A dried up main filter capacitor or other filter capacitor in the low voltage power supply that is producing an out-of-regulation condition until it warms up. A bad filter capacitor on the output of a series regulator may result in excessive voltage and subsequent shutdown. * A problem with the microcontroller, relay or its driver, or standby power supply. One possible test would be to vary the line voltage and observe the set's behavior. It may work fine at one extreme (usually low) or the other. This might give clues as to what is wrong. Also see the section: "Dead TV with periodic tweet-tweet, flub-flub, or low-low voltage".
The screen is blank with no raster at all. There are indications that the channel numbers are changing in the display. This indicates that some of the low voltages are present but these may be derived from the standby supply. Assuming there is no deflection and no HV, you either have a low voltage power supply problem, bad startup circuit, or bad horizontal output transistor (HOT) or other bad parts in the horizontal deflection. Check for bad fuses. (If you have HV as indicated by static electricity on the front of the screen and you hear the high pitched whine of the horizontal deflection when it is turned on, then the following does not apply). 1. Use an ohmmeter to test the HOT for shorts. If it is bad, look for open fusable resistors or other fuses you did not catch. 2. Assuming it is good, measure the voltage on the collector-emitter of the HOT (this is safe if there is no deflection). You should see the B+ - probably between 100 and 150 V. 3. If there is no voltage, you have a low voltage power supply problem and/or you have not found all the bad/open parts. 4. If there is voltage and no deflection (no high pitched whine and no HV), you probably have a startup problem - all TVs need some kind of circuit to kick start the horizontal deflection until the auxiliary power outputs of the flyback are available. Some Zeniths use a simple multivibrator for this - a couple of transistors. Others power the horizontal osc. IC from a special line-derived voltage. The multivibrator type are sometimes designed to fail if someone keeps turning the set on and off (like kids playing) since the power rating is inadequate. Test the transistors if it is that type with an ohmmeter. If one is shorted, you have a problem. The usual way a TV service person would test for startup problems is to inject a signal to the base of the HOT of about 15.75 KHz. If the TV then starts and runs once this signal is removed, the diagnosis is confirmed. This is risky - you can blow things up if not careful (including yourself). If you hear the high pitched whine of the deflection and/or feel some static on the scree, confirm that the horizontal deflection and high voltage are working by adjusting the SCREEN control (probably on the flyback). If you can get a raster then your problem is probably in the video or chroma circuits, not the deflection or high voltage.
The most likely cause is a dried up main filter capacitor. Once the effective capacitance drops low enough, 120 Hz (or 100 Hz in countries with 50 Hz power) ripple will make its way into the regulated DC supply (assuming full wave rectification). Another likely cause of similar symptoms is a defective low voltage regulator allowing excessive ripple. The regulator IC could be bad or filter capacitor following the IC could be dried up. Either of these faults may cause: 1. A pair of wiggles and/or hum bars in the picture which will float up the screen. For NTSC where the power line is 60 Hz but the frame rate is 59.94 Hz, it will take about 8 seconds for each bar to pass a given point on the screen. (On some sets, a half wave recitifier is used resulting in a single wiggle or hum bar). 2. Hum in the sound. This may or may not be noticeable with the volume turned down. 3. Possible regulation problems resulting in HV or total shutdown or power cycling on and off. The best approach to testing the capacitors is to clip a good capacitor of approximately the same uF rating and at least the same voltage rating across the suspect capacitor (with the power off). A capacitor meter can also be used but the capacitor may need to be removed from the circuit. Once the capacitors have been confirmed to be good, voltage measurements on the regulator should be able to narrow down the problem to a bad IC or other component.
These are fixed regulators that do fail but the problem may be elsewhere. If the B+ goes to high, the X-ray protection circuitry may kick in and shut down the horizontal deflection. If there is little or no load (horizontal deflection not running at all), all bets are off as well - the resistor that is likely across input-output will dominate and boost the voltage above the proper output for the regulator chip. Use a Variac to bring up the voltage to the TV. If the deflection does not start up at any voltage even with the B+ ramping up past its normal value, the problem is probably in the horizontal deflection/startup circuitry, not the regulator. Some of these may go out of regulation if the output electrolytics are dried up. There might a a 10 uF 200 V or so electrolytic across the output to ground. Test it or substitute a known good one of about the same uF rating and at least equal voltage rating. If you can get the TV to work at reduced voltage using a Variac (but possibly with hum bars in the picture and hum in the audio), check the output capacitor. Otherwise, it could be the regulator or one of its biasing components (sets current to B input - the voltage at this input should be close to the output voltage value). Also check to be sure the input voltage is solid - main filter capacitor is not dried up.
The power light may be flashing or if you are runing with a series light bulb it may be cycling on and off continuously. There may be a chirping or clicking sound from inside the set. (Note: using too small a series light bulb load during testing for the size of the TV may also result in this condition.) If there is a low voltage regulator or separate switching supply, it could be cycling on and off if the horizontal output, flyback, or one of its secondary loads were defective. Does this TV have a separate low voltage regulator and/or switching power supply or is it all part of the flyback circuit? For the following, I assume it is all in one (most common). Some simple things to try first: Verify that the main filter capacitor is doing its job. Excessive ripple on the rectified line voltage bus can cause various forms of shutdown behavior. An easy test is to jumper across the capacitor with one of at least equal voltage rating and similar capacitance (make connections with power off!). Use a Variac, if possible, to bring up the input voltage slowly and see if the TV works at any point without shutting down. If it does, this could be an indication of X-ray protection circuit kicking in, though this will usually latch and keep the set shut off if excessive HV were detected.
A TV which appears to be dead except for a once a second or so tweet or flub usually indicates an overload fault in the power supply or a short in one of its load circuits. In some cases, the low voltage (including B+) will just be reduced to a fraction of their normal value as a result of an overload on one of the outputs - usually the main B+. This may be caused by a shorted rectifier in the power supply, flyback, or even the yoke, but check the the loads first. Wait a few minutes for the filter caps to discharge (but stay away from the CRT HV connector as it may retain a dangerous and painful charge for a long time), use an ohmmeter across the various diodes in the power supply. Using an ohmmeter on the rectifier diodes, the resistance in at least one direction should be greater than 100 ohms. If it is much less (like 0 or 5 ohms), then the diode is probably bad. Unsolder and check again - it should test infinite (greater than 1M ohms) in one direction. Summary of possible causes: * Bad solder connections. * Other shorted components like capacitors. * Other problems in the power supply or its controller. * Bad flyback. * Short or excessive load on secondary supplies fed from flyback. * Short in horizontal yoke windings. * Problem with startup drive (cycling on overvoltage).
A failure of the horizontal output transistor or power supply switchmode transistor will blow a fuse or fusable resistor. Look for blown fuses and test for open fusable resistors in the power circuits. If you find one, then test the HOT and/or switchmode transistor for shorts. Other possibilities: rectifier diodes or main filter capacitor. While you are at it, check for bad connections - prod the circuit board with an insulated stick when the problem reoccurs - as these can cause parts to fail.
TVs and monitors usually incorporate some kind of startup circuit to provide drive to the horizontal output transistor (HOT) until the flyback power supply is running. Yes, TVs and monitors boot just like computers. There are two typical kinds of symptoms: power on click but nothing else happens or a tick-tick-tick sound indicating cycling of the low voltage (line regulator) but lack of startup horizontal drive. Check the voltage on the horizontal output transistor (HOT). If no voltage is present, there may be a blown fuse or open fusable resistor - and probably a shorted HOT. However, if the voltage is normal (or high) - usually 100-150 V, then there is likely a problem with the startup circuit not providing initial base drive to the HOT. The startup circuits may take several forms: 1. Discrete multivibrator or other simple transistor circuit to provide base drive to the HOT. 2. IC which is part of deflection chain powered off of a voltage divider or transformer. 3. Other type of circuit which operates off of the line which provides some kind of drive to the HOT. The startup circuit may operate off of the standby power supply or voltage derived from non-isolated input. Be careful - of course, use an isolation transformer whenever working on TVs and especially for power supply problems. Note that one common way of verifying that this is a startup problem is to inject a 15 KHz signal directly into the HOT base or driver circuit (just for a second or two). If the TV then starts up and continues to run, you know that it is a startup problem. Caution: be careful if you do this. The HOT circuit may be line-connected and it is possible to destroy the HOT and related components if this is not done properly. I once managed to kill not only the HOT but the chopper transistor as well while working in this area. An expensive lesson. I have also seen startup circuits that were designed to fail. Turning the TV on and off multiple times would exceed the power ratings of the components in the startup circuit. Some Zenith models have this 'feature'. When this situation exists, it could be that the circuit is not providing the proper drive or that due to some other circuit condition, the drive is not always sufficient to get the secondary supplies going to the point that the normal circuits take over. I would still check for bad connections - prod the circuit board with an insulated stick when the problem reoccurs.
If you can turn it back on with the s momentary key or power button: When it shuts off, do you need to push the power button once or twice to get it back on? Also, does anything else about the picture or sound change as it warms up? 1. If once, then the controller is shutting the TV down either as a result of a (thermally induced) fault in the controller or it sensing some other problem. Monitoring the voltage on the relay coil (assuming these is one) could help determine what is happening. The controller thinks it is in charge. 2. If twice, then the power supply is shutting down as the controller still thinks it is on and you are resetting it. A couple of possibilities here would be low voltage or high voltage regulation error (excessive high voltage is sensed and causes shutdown to prevent dangerous X-ray emission). A partially dried up main filter capacitor could also cause a shutdown but there might be other symptoms like hum bars in the picture just before this happened. Clipping a good capacitor across the suspect (with power off!) would confirm or eliminate this possibility. If it uses a pull-knob (or other hard on/off switch), then this may be like pulling the plug and would reset any abnormal condition.
The TV may do nothing, cycle on and off for a while, power up and then shutdown in an endless cycle - or at least for a while. Then it comes on and operates normally until it is turned off. A couple of possibilities: 1. The main filter capacitor or other filter capacitors in the low voltage power supply is dried up and this can cause all kinds of regulation problems. 2. The power supply regulator is defective (or marginal) allowing excessive voltage on its output and then the X-ray protection circuitry shuts you down. If you can get access to a Variac, it would be worth bringing up the input voltage slowly and seeing if there is some point at which it would stay on. If there is, then if the picture has serious hum bars in it the main filter cap could be bad. If more or less a decent picture with minor hum bars then it could be the regulator.
So, what else is new? In the old days, a TV was expected to take a few minutes (at least) to warm up. We are all spoiled today. Of course, you usually maintained a full time technician or engineer to fiddle with the convergence adjustments! A TV (from around 1983) needs at least 5 min. to warm up (lighting up the screen and making sound if I give it a cold start. Once warmed up, you can it off and on again from the front panel and it will work immediately. Another thing this TV has a sub-power switch in the rear. 1983 sounds a bit late, but sets in the late '70 during the transition from tubes to all solid state chassis often had the 'sub-power' switch providing some power to the filaments of the CRT and other tubes - usually in the deflection and high voltage circuits since these would take a while to heat up and stabilize. The idea was to leave this switch on all the time (except when going on vacation - it was sometimes labeled 'vacation') so that you would have nearly instant warm up. Supposedly, this led to an increased risk of fire as well (see the section: "About instant-on TVs"). If it is a totally solid state chassis, then there is some component - probably a capacitor in the power supply since it affects both picture and sound - that is drifting with temperature and needs to be located with cold spray or a heat gun.
This is probably a protection circuit kicking in especially if turning power off or pulling the plug is required to restore operation. The detection circuit could be in the power supply or horizontal deflection output circuit. It may be defective or the current may be too high for some other reason. A couple of tests can be performed to confirm that it is due to beam current: * Determine if behavior is similar when adjusting the user brightness control and the screen (G2) pot (on the flyback) or master brightness control. If the TV quits at about the same brightness level, overcurrent protection is likely. * Disconnect the filaments to the CRT (unsolder a pin on the CRT socket) and see if it still shuts down under the same conditions. If it is overcurrent protection, shut down should now *not* take place since there is no beam current.
What exactly is the purpose of such a relay ... i.e., why doesn't the power switch on the TV just apply power directly instead of through a relay? The usual reason for a relay instead of a knob switch is to permit a remote control to turn power on and off. If your TV does not have a remote, then it is simply the same chassis minus 24 cents worth of circuitry to do the remote function. Isn't marketing wonderful? The only unknown is the coil voltage. It is probably somewhere in the 6-12 volt range. You should be able to measure this on the coil terminals in operation. It will be a DC coil. However, the relay controls the 125 VAC (or 220) which you should treat with respect - it is a lot more dangerous than the 25KV+ on the CRT! Almost certainly, the relay will have 4 connections - 2 for power and 2 for the coil. If it is not marked then, it should be pretty easy to locate the power connection. One end will go to stuff near the AC line and the other end will go to the rectifier or maybe a fusable resistor or something like that. These will likely be beefier than the coil connections which will go between a transistor and GND or some low voltage, or maybe directly into a big microcontroller chip. Of course, the best thing would be to get the schematic. Some big public libraries carry the Sams' photofact series for TVs and VCRs. If not, take 10 minutes and trace it. You should be able to get far enough to determine the relay connections. Once you are sure of the AC connections - measure across them while it is off and also while it is on. While off, you should get 110-125 VAC. While on and working - 0. While on and not working either 110-125 VAC if the relay is not pulling in or 0 if it is and the problem is elsewhere. We can deal with the latter case if needed later on. Note the even if the relay contacts are not working, the problem could still be in the control circuitry not providing the correct coil voltage/current, though not likely. It may be expensive and/or difficult to obtain an exact replacement, but these are pretty vanilla flavored as relays go. Any good electronics distributor should be able to supply a suitable electrical replacement though you may need to be creative in mounting it.Go to [Next] segment
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